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Color codes:   NF - The Idealist Temperament  
    Are abstract in speech and cooperative in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is diplomatic integration. Their best developed intelligence role is either mentoring (Counselors and Teachers) or advocacy (Healers and Champions).    NF - The Idealist      NT - The Rational Temperament 
    Are abstract in speech and utilitarian in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is strategy. Their most developed intelligence role is that of either the Engineer (Architects and Inventors) or the Coordinator (Masterminds and Fieldmarshals).    NT - The Rational      SJ - The Guardian Temperament 
    Are concrete in communicating and cooperative in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is logistics. Their most developed intelligence role is either that of the Conservator (Protectors and Providers) or the Administrator (Inspector and Supervisor).   SJ - The Guardian      SP - The Artisan Temperament 
    Are concrete in speech and utilitarian in pursing their goals. Their greatest strength is tactical variation. Their most developed intelligence role is that of either the Operator (Promoters and Crafters) or the Entertainer (Performers and Composers).    SP - The Artisan
Portrait of the NF - The Idealist Temperament  Portrait of the NF - The Idealist    ENFJENFPINFJINFP
Idealists are abstract and cooperative. Seeking meaning and significance, they are concerned with personal growth and finding their own unique identity. Their greatest strength is diplomacy. They excel at clarifying, individualizing, unifying, and inspiring. The two roles are as follows:

    • Mentors are the directive (proactive) Idealists. Their most developed intelligence operation is developing.
      The attentive Counselors and the expressive Teachers are the two role variants.

    • Advocates are the informative (reactive) Idealists. Their most developed intelligence operation is mediating.
      The attentive Healers and the expressive Champions are the two role variants.

Idealists are abstract in speech and cooperative in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is diplomatic integration. Their best developed intelligence role is either mentoring (Counselors and Teachers) or advocacy (Healers and Champions).

As the identity-seeking temperament, Idealists long for meaningful communication and relationships. They search for profound truths hidden beneath the surface, often expressing themselves in metaphor. Focused on the future, they are enthusiastic about possibilities, and they continually strive for self-renewal.

Interests: Idealists tend to study the humanities. They seek careers facilitating the personal growth of others, whether through education, counseling, or other pursuits that promote the happiness and fulfillment of individuals and society.

Orientation: The lives of Idealists are guided by their devotion to their personal ethics. They are altruistic, taking satisfaction in the well-being of others. They believe in the basic goodness of the world and of the people in it. They take a holistic view toward suffering and misfortune, regarding them as part of a larger, unknowable truth, a mystical cause-and-effect. With an eye toward the future, they view life as a journey toward a deeper spiritual knowledge.

Self-image: The Idealists self-esteem is rooted in empathetic action; their self-respect in their benevolence; and their self-confidence in their personal authenticity.

Values: The emotions of Idealists "are both easily aroused and quickly discharged." Their general demeanor is enthusiastic. They trust their intuition and yearn for romance. They seek deeper self-knowledge and want to be understood for who they are behind the social roles they are forced to play. They aspire to wisdom that transcends ego and the bounds of the material world.

Social roles: Idealists seek mutuality in their personal relationships. Romantically, they want a soulmate with whom they can share a deep spiritual connection. As parents, they encourage their children to form harmonious relationships and engage in imaginative play. In their professional and social lives, Idealists strive to be catalysts of positive change.
Portrait of the NT - The Rational Temperament  Portrait of the NT - The Rational:    ENTJ ENTPINTJINTP
Rationals are abstract and pragmatic. Seeking mastery and self-control, they are concerned with their own knowledge and competence. Their greatest strength is strategy. They excel in any kind of logical investigation such as engineering, conceptualizing, theorizing, and coordinating. The two roles are as follows:

    • Coordinators are the directive (proactive) Rationals. Their most developed intelligence operation is arranging.
      The attentive Masterminds and the expressive Fieldmarshals are the two role variants.

    • Engineers are the informative (reactive) Rationals. Their most developed intelligence operation is constructing.
      The attentive Architects and the expressive Inventors are the two role variants.

Rationals are abstract in speech and utilitarian in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is strategy. Their most developed intelligence role is that of either the Engineer (Architects and Inventors) or the Coordinator (Masterminds and Fieldmarshals).

As the knowledge-seeking temperament, Rationals trust reason implicitly. They rely on objective observations and factual analysis in any given situation. They seek a logical argument as a basis for action. As strategists, Rationals strive to gain as much information as possible, applying what they learn to develop long-term plans and the steps for achieving them. They are characterized by a tough-minded personal style, tending to pursue either power or understanding. They are often strong-willed, ambitious, intelligent, and self-determined. Subjective thoughts and emotion have no place in the decision-making process of a Rational. Driven to excel, they work hard to achieve their goals, and they do well where they can take control or work independently on a task.

Interests: Rationals are drawn to science and technology. They usually seek careers involving systems whether mechanical or electrical (as in engineering), organic (as in biology), social (as in psychology or sociology), or organizational (as in business or economics).

Orientation: Rationals are pragmatic about the world around them, having little use for social convention or sentiment except as a means to an end. They weigh logical outcomes before acting, looking for errors in reasoning in themselves and others. They believe that concepts like good and bad are relative, depending on point of view.[citation needed] They regard time as the duration of events rather than as a continuum. They view place as the intersection of two crossing lines (as in Cartesian coordinates, for example).

Self-image: The Rationals self-esteem is rooted in their ingenuity; their self-respect in their autonomy; and their self-confidence in their resoluteness.

Values: Rationals appear calm even in times of turmoil. They achieve this state through an intense concentration of effort rather than through cold-heartedness. They trust reason and strive for achievement. They are knowledge-seekers who aspire to technical wizardry, and so are pleased when others defer to their expertise.

Social roles: In romantic relationships, Rationals want a mindmate with whom they can discuss the topics that interest them, which are usually abstract or theoretical, such as philosophy. As parents, they encourage their children to become self-reliant individuals capable of thinking for themselves. In their professional and social lives, Rationals are visionary leaders, developing and consolidating coherent long-term plans.
Portrait of the SJ - The Guardian Temperament  Portrait of the SJ - The Guardian:    ESTJESFJISTJISFJ
Guardians are concrete and cooperative. Seeking security and belonging, they are concerned with responsibility and duty. Their greatest strength is logistics. They excel at organizing, facilitating, checking, and supporting. The two roles are as follows:

    • Administrators are the directive (proactive) Guardians. Their most developed intelligence operation is regulating.
      The attentive Inspectors and the expressive Supervisors are the two role variants.

    • Conservators are the informative (reactive) Guardians. Their most developed intelligence operation is supporting.
      The attentive Protectors and the expressive Providers are the two role variants.

Guardians are concrete in communicating and cooperative in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is logistics. Their most developed intelligence role is either that of the Conservator (Protectors and Providers) or the Administrator (Inspector and Supervisor).

As the security-seeking temperament, Guardians are practical and frugal types. They "share certain core values, among them the belief in a strong work ethic, the need for people and institutions to be responsible, the importance of following the rules and of serving one's community." Guardians value experience, and they seek a tangible return on their investments. Believing in common sense, they are not attracted to idle speculation. They are the glue of civilization, maintaining and nurturing institutions that have been established by the dint of hard work. They tend to be conventional and cooperative in their work, wanting to make sure everybody gets what they deserve, no more and no less. They follow the rules and conventions of their cohort or group and expect others to as well.

Interests: In their education and careers, Guardians' primary interest is business and commerce, with an eye toward practical applications in managing materiel. They are preoccupied with maintaining the morality of their group.

Orientation: Guardians have a strong sense of duty. They forgo the pleasures of the moment to prepare for unseen eventualities. They regard past events with a sense of resignation. They guard against the corruption of outside influences, and look to past experiences to guide their present choices.

Self-image: The Guardians self-esteem is based on their dependability; their self-respect on their beneficence; and their self-confidence on their respectability.

Values: Guardians are concerned about the well-being of people and institutions that they hold dear. They trust authority and seek security. They strive for a sense of belonging and want to be appreciated for their contributions. They aspire to become executives, whether by managing their own households or by running a multinational corporation.

Social roles: In romantic relationships, Guardians regard themselves as helpmates, working together with their spouse to establish a secure home. As parents, they focus on raising their children to become productive and law-abiding citizens. In business and social situations, they are stabilizers, establishing procedures and ensuring that the material needs of the group are met.
Portrait of the SP - The Artisan Temperament  Portrait of the SP - The Artisan:    ESTPESFPISTPISFP
Artisans are concrete and pragmatic. Seeking stimulation and virtuosity, they are concerned with making an impact. Their greatest strength is tactics. They excel at troubleshooting, agility, and the manipulation of tools, instruments, and equipment.The two roles are as follows:

    • Operators are the directive (proactive) Artisans. Their most developed intelligence operation is expediting.
      The attentive Crafters and the expressive Promoters are the two role variants.

    • Entertainers are the informative (reactive) Artisans. Their most developed intelligence operation is improvising.
      The attentive Composers and the expressive Performers are the two role variants.

Artisans are concrete in speech and utilitarian in pursing their goals. Their greatest strength is tactical variation. Their most developed intelligence role is that of either the Operator (Promoters and Crafters) or the Entertainer (Performers and Composers).

As the stimulation-seeking temperament, Artisans prefer to live one day at a time. They may spontaneously pursue activities that offer fun or pleasure. Playful in their interpersonal relationships, Artisans tend to be more permissive as parents than the other temperaments, wanting their children to explore and enjoy the world.

Interests: In education, Artisans want to learn artcrafts and techniques that they can use in their career. They tend to seek work involving operations and equipment, which could range from a scalpel to a fighter jet.

Orientation: Artisans live in the here and now. They want to enjoy the present moment. They tend to be optimistic about the future and cynical about the past, believing that life is a series of risks or random events without any larger pattern or meaning.

Self-image: The Artisans self-esteem is rooted in their grace and artistry; their self-respect in their boldness; and their self-confidence in their adaptability.

Values: Artisans enjoy excitement and perform well when in a state of restless energy. "They are excitable as children and they never seem to get less excitable as they grow up." They seek stimulation and trust their impulses. Prone to spontaneous acts of generosity, they want to make an impact on others. They aspire to virtuosity, taking great pleasure in practicing and mastering their technique in the pursuits that interest them.

Social roles: In romantic relationships, Artisans want a playmate, someone who can share in the pleasure and excitement they seek. As parents, Artisans are liberators, exposing their children to a wide variety of activities, encouraging them to push beyond their limits, and guiding them toward independence and self-sufficiency. In business and social situations, they are negotiators, making the most of the opportunities at hand.
Summary of the Four Preferences
The four pairs of preferences or dichotomies

Extraversion (E ) - (I ) Introversion     • •     Sensing (S ) - (N ) Intuition      • •     Thinking (T ) - (F ) Feeling      • •      Judging ( J ) - P ) Perception
Note that the terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to the MBTI which differ from their everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgmental or less perceptive . Nor does the MBTI instrument measure aptitude; it simply indicates for one preference over another. Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as more extraverted: they simply have a clear preference .

Point scores on each of the dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with the same type. However, Isabel Myers considered the direction of the preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than the degree of the preference (for example, very clear vs. slight). The expression of a person's psychological type is more than the sum of the four individual preferences. The preferences interact through type dynamics and type development
• •  Where do you prefer to focus your attention? • •  The two ways of focusing attention on the outer world.
Extraverts are more outwardly focused - they direct their energy toward the world outside themselves, almost as if they are equipped with radar and are constantly scanning to see what and whom it picks up. This explains why Extravets tend to be easily distracted. Extraverts look at a situation and ask, "How do I affect that?" When problems develop in a relationship, Extraverts usually need to talk things out in order to understand or resolve them.

Extraverts are stimulated being around other people, as it seems to charge their batteries and often have a large and varied circle of friends and acquaintances. Extraverts like and need to be around others and frequently feel lonely when they're not. Extraverts are often interested in a variety of subjects and ideas for the depth of experience. They tend to speak first and think second, and as act before they think. They like being out in front and comfortable in the spot light.
Introverts are more inwardly focused, directing their energy toward themselves, their own ideas or thoughts and tend to ask themselves, "How does that affect me?" When problems develops in a relationship, they need to mull things over - sometimes only for a minute, other times much longer, depending on how important the issues are.

Intraverts energies are often drained by having to be with lots of people especially for sustained periods of time, this is not to suggest that extraverts are recluses or unable to interact with others, but are generally more comfortable interacting one on one or being by themselves. Intraverts are usually selective about their interests and almost always prefer to explore them in greater depth. Introverts need to think things through before they speak. Their thoughful deliberate reasoning process often leads Introverts to be misunderstood and even underestimated.
• •  How do you acquire information? • •  The two ways of finding things out, called the two Perceiving functions.
Sensors take in information through their five sense, paying close attention to what something looks, sounds, feels, tastes, or smells like. They are realistic and practical people who notice, remember, and are accurate about details.

Sensors are very present orientated, so tasks have their full attention and they don't worry much about possibilities that may or may not occur in the future, especially those things over which they have little or no controll. Sensors only love ideas if they have a practical use to solve real problems immediately. Sensors are hands on people who trust direct experience, and who like to master a skill and use it and are at there best when they can replicate some thing they have done before.
When Intuitives view the world, they see what could be, rather than what is, questioning the reasons why it is as it is and it's relation to other things. Rather than rely on their five sensers, it's as if they use their sixth sense to make sense of it. They often forget the specifics of a situation, unless it's unusual or out of the ordinary, more so focused on imagining possibilities and seeing patterns, connections, and implication that may elude the Sensor.

Intuitives are generally more future orientated, and dream about tomorrow and imagine how present events will affect the future. They love new ideas and theories, and find they are interesting in there own right, and they don't have to have any practical utility to be worthwhile. Intuitives like learning new skills and have little patience for following detailed directions, they prefer to figure it out themselves. After they master a skill, they are often bored and seek another more creative or interesting way of doing the task.
• •  How do you make decisions? • •  The two opposite styles of Judging, i.e., coming to conclusions or making decisions.
Thinkers tend to step back, look at situations objectively and decide based on impersonal analysis and feel an obligation to adhere to the principles they consider important. An important principle to most Thinkers one must be consistent and hold everyone to the same standard. Thinkers consider intimacy the most important aspect of a relationship as is intellectual stimulation.

Thinkers place a high value on honest and directness and as a result they are more likely to offend someone unintentionally. What they see as being frank and forthright others may percieve as being blunt and insensitive. Thinkers are less aware of their feelings than feelers and often less skillful in dealing eith others. This classic example "I told you I loved you when I married you. If anything changes, I'll let you know." They often consider it unneccessary, and even find it uncomfortable, to repeat the words. "I love you." If there is a problem they want constructive advice how to fix it.
Feelers tend to step forward and decide based on their personal values, and how others are likely to feel about them and are often driven by their personal values. Since they are natually concerned and aware of how other people feel, they are more inclined to look for and accept extenuating circumstances. Feelers are so sensitive to others, they will often go out of their way to avoid hurting people's feelings. This means they are usually very tactful and diplomatic, but this also means they can be less than 100 percent honest.

Feelers value harmony and avoid conflict and are not likely to confront a Thinker who offends them. Feelers strongly value expressing their emotions and are quite comfortable dealing with emotions, their own and other people's. Feelers tend to tell there partners over and over how they feel about them hoping they will hear it in return. When they are upset or confused they want their partners to listen supportively and compassionalty. It's a sad truth of human nature that we usually give what we wish to receive rather than what our partners really want.
• •  How do you orient to the outer world? • •  The way you deal with the outer world and how you orient yourself in relation to it.
A Judger doesn't mean he or she is neccesssarily judgemental, anymore than a Perceiver is especially perceptive. Judgers are planners, and they like to be prepared. They expect a set plan to be followed, they often have a hard time shifting gears when the plan unexpectedly changes. "A place for everything, and everything in it's place", as "mess" equals "stress" for Judgers. Perceivers feel tension when they are forced to make a decision. To alleviate the tension, they avoid making decisions and try to leave their options open as long as possible.

Perceivers often are hesitant to commit themselves for fear they if they do, they may miss some great opportunity that will come along later. Perceivers like to act spontaneously and usually adjust well to suprises.
The Four Functions of Each Type
Each of us use all the four functions but it varies to different degrees. Two of the four functions will tend to be conscious and two will tend to be unconscious.

Each person has a preferred Perceiving Function, either Sensation or Intuition, and a preferred Judging Function, either Thinking or Feeling. You know which are your preferences from the two middle letters of your type formula. One of these two letters will be the Dominant Function and the other the Auxiliary Function. The way we establish which of the two functions is Dominant and which is Auxiliary is by going to the first and last letter of your Type formula. The first letter, E or I, should be placed beside the No. 1 or Dominant Function. You then need to place the other - E if you are I, or I if you are E - in the No. 2 or Auxiliary Function.

Now we go to the last letter. This is going to tell us which function we Extrovert (this is simply the way the questionnaire is constructed). If your Type formula finishes with a J then your T or F (whichever is in your formula) goes beside your E. If your Type formula finishes with P then your S or N (whichever is in your formula) goes beside your E. The other letter goes beside the remaining function.

We can each identify then, at least theoretically, which are our Dominant, Auxiliary, Tertiary and Inferior Functions. We in fact have better use and superior control of the Dominant Function. The Auxiliary Function however is very important to balance the strength of that Dominant Function.

We need this balance. Jung in his Psychological Types outlined the psychotic and neurotic tendencies of type when people only use their Dominant Function. Basically the Extrovert becomes increasingly Extroverted and moves towards hysteria, whereas the Introvert becomes increasingly withdrawn having no relation to objective reality.

We need to use all four of our Functions and it is particularly important to have the balance of our Auxiliary Function.

Finally a note on the Inferior Function. The Inferior Function is the opposite to our Dominant or most preferred Function. We have little control of this part of our psychology, we often project it onto others and it is usually our greatest area of vulnerability. It is primitive, childish and often tyrannical.

The Inferior Function is often the "blind spot" in our nature, our "shadow". We need to look at this part of ourselves and not run from it. Basic to Jungian Psychology is that the unconscious can and will come in to enlarge consciousness and bring forth new attitudes.

Dominant Functions
According to Myers and Briggs, people use all four cognitive functions. However, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by the secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree the tertiary function. The fourth and least conscious function is always the opposite of the dominant function. Myers called this inferior function the shadow .

The four functions operate in conjunction with the attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in either an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition
extraverted Sensing (Se) introverted Sensing (Si)
Observing and Responding
Adapting and Varying

• Current perceptions vividly capturing attention
• Paying attention to what stands out (using 5 senses)
• Becoming aware of rich sensory details
• Noticing what's happening right "now" as it changes
• Scanning the current situation for relevant information
• Energy going to more, new and exciting sensory stimulation
• Focusing on possibilities for immediate action
• Talking about things to do, actions to take
• Asking for specific details to perceive the pattern
• Reading minimal nonverbal cues
• Seeking aesthetic delight and pleasure in experiences
• Attention turning outward to more sensory input
• Living an experience in the moment
Comparing and Contrasting
Noticing Match and Mismatch
Past oriented

• Current perceptions eliciting stored impressions & memories
• Paying attention to similarities and differences
• Becoming aware of differences from what was
• Noticing discrepancies
• Scanning memory bank for related information
• Energy staying with the recalled image
• Focusing on past successes or failures
• Talking about past experiences
• Asking for history or prior experience
• Reading lessons from the past
• Seeking to avoid mistakes made before
• Attention turning inward to images of past impressions
• Re-living an experience in your mind.
extraverted iNtuition (Ne) introverted iNtuition (Ni)
Seeing Potentials
Wondering and Brainstorming
Emergent oriented

• Current perceptions sparking alternatives
• Paying attention to relationships and connections
• Becoming aware of patterns, implications, and meanings
• Noticing meta-communications and what is not said
• Scanning the current situation for what might be possible
• Energy going to interactions to generate more possibilities
• Focusing on multiple aspects of the whole context
• Talking about possibilities, new ideas, meanings
• Asking, "Have you thought about...?"
• Reading the meanings of a situation
• Seeking more possibilities, ideas, options
• Attention turning outward to more relationships and meanings
• Interpreting an experience
Foreseeing - Conceptualizing
Understanding Complex Patterns
Synthesizing and Symbolizing
Future oriented

• Current perceptions sparking insights into complex situations
• Paying attention to future implications
• Becoming aware of universal meanings and symbols
• Noticing whole patterns or systems
• Scanning internal images for insights
• Energy staying with the vision
• Focusing on depth of understanding
• Talking about the future and the meaning
• Asking, "What is the goal?"
• Reading the future and the potential in others
• Seeking innovative ideas or universal symbols
• Attention turning inward to images forming of the future
• Imagining and anticipating an experience
extraverted Thinking (Te) introverted Thinking (Ti)
Being organized
Coordinating and Sequencing
Checking Against Criteria
Particular to What's Here & Now

• Talking about the steps to get things done
• Asking Socratic questions to clarify logic or make a point
• Evaluating priorities in reaching a goal
• Deciding about sequence, hierarchy, schedule
• Determining the required resources to achieve a goal
• Being guided by organizing principles and criteria
• Convincing with logical arguments
• Noticing the component parts and what's missing
• Focusing on cause and effect
• Looking for logic
• Searching for efficient organization
• Seeking to establish order and efficiency
• Organizing an experience
Categorizing and Classifying
Checking Consistency
Universal orientated

• Talking about how things match a model or blueprint
• Asking what is wrong, how something's not working
• Evaluating accuracy and internal consistency
• Deciding what kind of object something is
• Determining the defining characteristics
• Being guided by the reasons things work
• Convincing with clear, precise definitions
• Noticing inconsistencies and imprecision
• Focusing on thorough analysis, seeing all the angles
• Looking for concise, clear explanations
• Searching for a "leverage point" to fix things
• Seeking to solve problems
• Analyzing and critiquing an experience
extraverted Feeling (Fe) introverted Feeling (Fi)
Being considerate
Adjusting and Accommodating
Checking Appropriateness
Particular to What's Here & Now

• Talking about personal details
• Asking questions to find out what others need
• Evaluating appropriateness
• Deciding about what is friendly, nice, mean
• Determining what others want
• Being guided by creating harmony within any group
• Convincing with self-disclosure and warmth
• Noticing what's important to others
• Focusing on consideration of others
• Searching for connection with and affirmation from others
• Seeking to establish rapport and stay in touch with others
• Relating through an experience
Personal Values
Harmonizing and Clarifying
Checking Congruency
Universal oriented

• Talking about likes, dislikes, and what's important
• Asking, "Is it worth standing up for?"
• Evaluating priorities according to values
• Deciding about what is important
• Determining the essence of what's important
• Being guided by strong convictions
• Convincing with rightness/wrongness or goodness/badness
• Noticing incongruities and phoniness
• Focusing on authenticity, living out values
• Looking for intrinsic values, something worth believing in
• Searching for people, ideas, or actions worth promoting
• Seeking to establish loyalty and commitment
• Valuing an experience